MarketingPeer-Reviewed Research

Sea Of Decisions

Boats on rocky water
  • Consumers need a range of information when they consider a product that’s just been introduced into the market.
  • Timing plays a key role in determining the right kind of information firms should provide consumers.
  • Marketers of a truly new product should tout its attributes and innovation. Marketers of similar products that come later should, if they’re high quality, educate consumers on what quality looks like ­— then let them decide which product is best. For marketers of late-appearing, lower quality products, honesty is the best policy.

From smart phones to video games to virtual reality toys, new products roll forward as relentlessly as the tides. So what, and how, should you tell consumers about your product to avoid being swept away in a sea of similar wares?

To answer this question, Rice Business professor Amit Pazgal and colleague Yuanfang Lin of Conestoga College dove into the particulars of how companies differentiate their products by informing consumers about a new product’s quality.

The rush of new products, they note, is particularly intense in technology, where innovations are constant — which means consumers constantly need information about them. Traditionally, tech companies make the case for their products using advertising, free sample, product trials and splashy product demonstrations. (See your local Apple Store).

But how does a consumer’s wish for information interact with their ultimate buying decision?

Timing, Pazgal and Lin found, plays a powerful role in the type of information that best influences consumers. Suppose, for example, Firm 1 offers a new product, say a smartphone with innovative features. This makes Firm 1 a pioneer. For a certain golden period, Firm 1 might hold a monopoly in the market, since there’s simply no other smartphone like theirs. This is the moment, the researchers say, to offer consumers information that reveals the product’s true quality and uniqueness. Because no similar product is out there, Firm 1 has the power to establish the parameters for judging its invention.  

Inevitably, of course, another company (call it Firm 2) will come up with something comparable. Thanks to the heavy lifting in innovation by Firm 1, Firm 2 has the luxury to create a phone of equal or greater quality. And this is when the tide starts to turn. One might assume Firm 2 would just inform consumers of the superior quality of its product. But, surprisingly, Pazgal and Lin found that in most cases Firm 2 will instead focus on educating consumers about their preference for quality — in effect, leaving it up to the buyer to decide which of the two phones they really wants.  

However, if another firm emerges with a similar product of lesser quality, its marketing will likely take yet another turn. Instead of trying to claim better quality, late entry companies offering an inferior product typically admit outright that their product isn’t as well made as other versions.

That’s because such firms calculate that if customers discover this themselves, they’ll react badly. By telling the truth and pricing appropriately, a firm can find a calm stretch of water elsewhere in the market, someplace where it’s not clashing directly with the earlier, higher quality products.

Whether it’s Alexa, a smart TV or a virtual reality game, Pazgal and Lin explain, when a product enters the market for the first time, consumers need to be shown how it works. When a second product in the same line is introduced by a different company, the marketing task changes: it’s now more important to show consumers how to identify a quality product, and then let them choose for themselves.

Any time a company launches a device or service into the world, in other words, it needs to trust consumers’ ability to learn — and not drown them with too much information. Informed what good quality looks like, Pazgal and Lin conclude, consumers will swim on their own to the item they truly want.


Amit Pazgal is Friedkin Chair in Management and Professor of Marketing and Operations Management at Jones Graduate School of Business at Rice University.

To learn more, please see: Lin, Y. & Pazgal, A. (2016). Hide supremacy or admit inferiority ­– market entry strategies in response to consumer informational needs. Customer Needs and Solutions, 3(2), 94-103.